1 . This report is submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 2603 (2021), by which the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Verification Mission in Colombia, and Security Council resolution 2366 (2017), in which the Council requested the Secretary-General to report on the implementation of the Mission’s mandate every 90 days. This report covers the period from December 28, 2021 to March 25, 2022.
II. Major developments
2 . The period under review was marked by an electoral campaign and congressional elections, held on 13 March. Colombians have elected a new Congress for the period 2022-2026, which will be inaugurated on July 20. These were the second congressional elections since the signing of the Final Agreement to end the conflict and build a stable and lasting peace and represented an important milestone in its implementation: it was the first time that Colombians from conflict-affected rural areas country voted to elect representatives, all accredited as victims, for the 16 Transitional Peace Special Electoral Constituencies (see para. 13 below). Turnout exceeded 46%, about the same as in 2018. Congressional elections saw the highest number of female candidates in the country’s history, 39.5% of candidates were women, compared to 34.5% in 2018, and an increase in the number of women elected to Congress. On the same day, voters participated in primary elections to determine the presidential candidates of three different coalitions who will now participate, along with other individuals, in the first round of presidential elections scheduled for May 29, with a second round scheduled for May 29. June 19. , if necessary.
3 . Despite a few security incidents, including the killing of two soldiers in the departments of Meta and Caquetá, respectively, voting went ahead with little disruption nationwide. Only 3 of the more than 112,000 installed polling stations had to be moved due to security concerns. Nevertheless, during the campaign, threats and intimidation hit various candidates across the political spectrum and prompted the national government and electoral authorities to redouble their efforts to ensure safe elections for both voters and candidates. thanks to measures such as the Democracy and Agora II plans.
4 . Controversy erupted during the post-election process over vote counting and possible effects on the distribution of Senate seats, with several parties across the board raising concerns about the state’s National Register handling of the election process. civil. This was the subject of a meeting of the National Commission for the Coordination and Monitoring of Electoral Processes (composed of the Government, control bodies, electoral authorities and political parties). The count is being finalized and the National Electoral Council should announce the final results of the elections in the coming weeks.
5 . In March, representatives of 13 political parties signed a pact for non-violence in elections promoted by the National Council for Peace, Reconciliation and Coexistence and civil society organizations. The signing ceremony was presided over by the President of Colombia, Iván Duque. In an address at the event, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Colombia and Head of the United Nations Verification Mission in Colombia, Carlos Ruiz Massieu, expressed the hope that the message of the pact of maintaining dialogue , tolerance and respect for life last beyond the elections.
6 . Violence continued in several of the priority regions for the implementation of the Final Agreement, affecting, among others, Afro-Colombian and indigenous communities in the Pacific region of the country. Note also the sharp deterioration in security in the department of Arauca where, according to the authorities, 116 people were killed in the context of clashes and tensions between the Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN) and the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de ColombiaEjército del Pueblo (FARC-EP) dissident groups and thousands of people have been displaced and confined.
7 . In response to several protection warrants presented by veterans from different regions, the Constitutional Court informed in January that it had declared an “unconstitutional state of affairs” regarding the guarantee of veterans’ rights to life, physical integrity and peace. It is a judicial figure used to order measures to remedy a widespread violation of the fundamental rights of a specific group. In its decision, the Court determined that there is a low level of compliance with the implementation of the security guarantee provisions of the final agreement.
8 . The Court ordered the Government to guarantee adequate resources for the protection of former combatants and those appearing before the transitional justice system; and prioritize municipalities where they face greater risks. In addition, the Court ordered the government to ensure the effective functioning of the comprehensive security system for the exercise of politics and the National Commission for Security Guarantees, both created by the final agreement, and also ordered strengthen efforts to prevent stigma and include gender and ethnic considerations in security measures. The court asked Congress to pass the pending security safeguards legislation. The Government disagreed with the Court’s assessment that several of the Court’s orders reiterate measures already implemented by the Government and state entities and, therefore, recently asked the Court to quash its decision.
9 . In addition, the Court upheld claims by civil society organizations and local communities who claimed that the government’s actions to reactivate the aerial spraying of illicit crops with glyphosate had breached the right to participation of potentially vulnerable communities. affected, including the right to prior consultation with ethnic communities. The government asked the court to reconsider and reverse its decision.